Alcohol and mental health: Alcohol, a widely consumed psychoactive substance, has been a part of human culture for centuries. Historically, it has played roles in rituals, celebrations, and social interactions. Apart from the largely unregulated caffeine, it is the most used drug in the United States. However, its impact on mental health is a topic of extensive research and discussion.
While individuals can engage in moderate alcohol consumption during leisure time, excessive or chronic use can lead to many mental health problems. Often, alcohol abuse is a poorly applied bandage covering up underlying mental health issues, a way to dull the pain and forget for a while. One of the best ways to stop drinking is to address what drives you to drink. Whether it’s depression, a specific challenge in your life, all-encompassing anxiety, or worry, tackling what lies underneath is the key to ditching bad habits and having a healthier mindset.
At Integrative Healthcare Center, our job is to get you to where you feel comfortable overcoming your challenges and progressing with a healthier mindset. We care about mental health in all its forms and can help overcome the mental anguish that leads to substance abuse. What you often see in these situations is an unfortunate symbiosis, a cycle of drinking because you feel bad and feeling bad because you drank.
This article will explore that phenomenon, shedding light on the relationship between alcohol and mental health.
Understanding Alcohol’s Effects
Alcohol, like many other drugs, has both short-term and long-term effects on mental health. Understanding these effects is crucial to appreciate the intricate relationship between alcohol and mental well-being.
1. Immediate Effects
Alcohol is known for its ability to alter mood and behavior, often called its “depressant” nature. It can induce relaxation and euphoric feelings when consumed, temporarily leading individuals to use it to escape stress or negative emotions. However, these pleasant effects are typically short-lived and can quickly give way to more negative emotional states, such as sadness, irritability, or aggression. The more an individual drinks over time, the less they’ll feel euphoric.
Alcohol also impairs cognitive functions such as judgment and decision-making, making individuals more likely to engage in risky behaviors they would otherwise avoid. This loosening of inhibitions can lead to accidents, injuries, and interpersonal conflicts, all of which can contribute to developing mental health problems. Long periods of alcohol abuse alienate you from those you love the most and often end in shame and apologies.
2. Chronic Abuse and Dependence
While some people occasionally drink alcohol without experiencing negative consequences, others may end up trapped in a dependence cycle. Chronic alcohol abuse is often characterized by increased tolerance, meaning that individuals need more alcohol to achieve the desired effects, and withdrawal symptoms when not consuming alcohol.
The repeated use of alcohol can lead to significant mental health issues. Depression and anxiety are common among individuals with alcohol use disorders. These disorders can be a result of the direct effects of alcohol on brain chemistry, as well as the consequences of alcohol-induced impairment, such as strained relationships and financial troubles.
Alcohol and Mental Health: Co-occurring Disorders
The relationship between alcohol and mental health is not one-sided but bidirectional. Many individuals with pre-existing mental health conditions turn to alcohol as a means of self-medication, while alcohol abuse can exacerbate or even trigger mental health disorders.
People living with conditions like depression, anxiety, or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may use alcohol to cope with their symptoms temporarily. Initially, alcohol may relieve emotional pain, but this relief is often short-lived and followed by a worsening of symptoms. This pattern can create a cycle of alcohol abuse, exacerbating the underlying mental health condition.
The nausea, inflammation, fogginess, and physical unease individuals feel when abusing alcohol add to their mental malaise. It isn’t easy to feel good when constantly experiencing symptoms of depression on top of alcohol’s brain-depressing effect and worsening bodily health.
2. Alcohol Specific Mental Health Disorders
Excessive alcohol consumption can also trigger the onset of mental health disorders in previously unaffected individuals. Conditions such as alcohol-induced depression and alcohol-induced anxiety disorder can emerge as a result of long-term alcohol abuse. This danger demonstrates the potential for alcohol to act as a catalyst for mental health issues, further underscoring the intricate connection between the two.
Alcohol and depression often have a bidirectional relationship. Individuals with depression may turn to alcohol as a form of self-medication to alleviate their symptoms temporarily. However, chronic alcohol abuse can contribute to the development of clinical depression. This outcome is partly due to alcohol’s impact on the brain’s neurotransmitters, particularly serotonin and dopamine, which play a crucial role in regulating mood.
4. Anxiety Disorders
Excessive alcohol consumption can lead to acute anxiety symptoms, such as restlessness and palpitations. During a hangover, individuals report higher anxiety levels, and worrying about what happened under the influence can contribute significantly to this. Additionally, individuals with anxiety disorders may be more prone to alcohol abuse as a way to manage their symptoms.
5. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
Alcohol abuse is common among individuals with PTSD, as they may use it to cope with traumatic memories and emotional distress. Ultimately, this does not help, and using it to escape from problems results in acquiring a new one.
6. Bipolar Disorder
Alcohol abuse is prevalent in individuals with bipolar disorder. Alcohol can disrupt mood stability and interfere with the effectiveness of mood-stabilizing medications. It can also trigger manic or depressive episodes in those with bipolar disorder.
The Brain’s Response to Alcohol
Alcohol interacts with various neurotransmitters and brain regions, ultimately influencing mood, behavior, and cognitive function in the following ways:
1. Dopamine and Reward Pathways
Alcohol increases the release of dopamine, a neurotransmitter associated with pleasure and reward, in the brain. This dopamine surge contributes to the initial feelings of euphoria and relaxation associated with alcohol consumption. However, with chronic alcohol abuse, the brain’s reward pathways can become dysregulated, leading to a decreased ability to experience pleasure from natural rewards and an increased desire for alcohol.
2. GABA and Glutamate
Alcohol also affects the balance between two neurotransmitters, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate, in the brain. GABA is an inhibitory neurotransmitter that slows down brain activity, while glutamate is excitatory, promoting brain activity. Alcohol enhances the effects of GABA, further depressing brain activity, which contributes to the sedative effects of alcohol.
However, chronic alcohol abuse can lead to an increased tolerance to these effects, requiring more alcohol to achieve the same level of sedation. This is why some people repeatedly drink too much; their brain chemistry no longer registers joy at lower levels.
3. Structural Changes
Prolonged alcohol abuse can lead to structural changes in the brain. Alcohol shrinks the brain, particularly in decision-making and emotional regulation regions. Additionally, alcohol can damage brain cells and disrupt neural connections, potentially contributing to the development of mental health disorders.
Given the complex interplay between alcohol and mental health, individuals who experience both substance abuse and mental health issues often require specialized care. This dual diagnosis, also known as co-occurring disorders, necessitates an integrated treatment approach that simultaneously addresses both aspects of the individual’s condition.
Integrated treatment combines substance abuse and mental health disorder interventions into a comprehensive plan that may include therapy, medication, and lifestyle changes. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and dialectical-behavior therapy (DBT) help individuals develop coping strategies, identify triggers, and learn healthier ways to manage emotions and behaviors.
Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) therapy, an innovative and non-invasive technique that uses magnetic fields to activate certain areas of the brain, has shown incredible promise at reducing the symptoms of depression, anxiety, and PTSD. When combined with other therapies, it can lead to complete remission.
Integrative Healthcare Center and Mental Health
If you are struggling with alcohol abuse and mental health, let us help you regain control. We employ the top mental wellness and therapy talent at Integrative Healthcare Center in New Hampshire. Whether you are looking for psychiatric talk therapy, grief counseling, family therapy, CBT, or medication or looking at something more innovative like TMS and animal therapy, we have your back.
Call (855) 608-0002 or message us online for a conversation.