In today’s consumer-driven society, shopping has become integral to daily life. While most people enjoy the occasional shopping spree, some individuals find themselves trapped in a never-ending cycle of needing to buy things they don’t need. Compulsive buying disorder, or oniomania, is a behavioral addiction characterized by an irresistible urge to shop excessively and impulsively, leading to severe financial, emotional, and social consequences.
The risk of compulsive buying disorder has increased with the ease of buying facilitated by online shopping and algorithms recommending items of interest based on past purchases. Integrative HealthCare Center specializes in helping you overcome any mental health challenge and live up to your potential. Compulsive buying disorder is under-discussed and difficult to notice in others until the credit card bills pile up to unsustainable amounts.
This article sheds light on why people develop this disorder, the underlying neurological mechanisms, its impact on individuals and their families, strategies to avoid it, and available psychiatric treatments like Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT).
1. Why People Compulsively Shop
Compulsive buying disorder is a complex condition with multiple underlying factors. Several reasons can contribute to the development of this disorder:
- Emotional Triggers: Emotional distress, such as stress, anxiety, depression, loneliness, or boredom, can be powerful triggers for compulsive shopping. Shopping may serve as a temporary escape from negative emotions or provide a sense of control and satisfaction.
- Gratification and Dopamine Release: Purchasing can release dopamine, the brain’s “feel-good” neurotransmitter. Compulsive shoppers may become addicted to the pleasurable sensations associated with buying items, leading to a continuous cycle of seeking that gratification.
- Social and Cultural Influences: Advertising, social media, and peer pressure can fuel the desire to buy new products and keep up with trends. The constant exposure to consumerism can contribute to normalizing compulsive shopping behaviors.
- Low Self-Esteem: Individuals with low self-esteem may use shopping to boost their self-worth and gain temporary validation.
2. Neurological Underpinnings of Compulsive Buying Disorder
Recent studies have explored the neurological basis of Compulsive buying disorder. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) scans of compulsive shoppers have revealed some possible reasons behind compulsive buying:
- Altered Reward System: Compulsive shoppers exhibit heightened activity in the brain’s reward centers, such as the ventral striatum, when anticipating or making purchases. Researchers believe this part of the brain is responsible for similar behavioral addictions, like gambling. An exaggerated response to shopping stimuli suggests an overactive reward system.
- Impaired Impulse Control: Brain areas responsible for impulse control, like the prefrontal cortex, may show reduced activity in individuals with compulsive buying disorder. This diminished ability to control impulses contributes to the impulsive buying behaviors seen in this disorder.
- Emotional Regulation: Some studies suggest that compulsive shoppers may have difficulty regulating emotions, leading to an increased reliance on shopping as a coping mechanism.
A fascinating element of the disorder is that a “shopping” personality type doesn’t seem to exist. There are no early life experiences that define individuals who struggle with this condition. However, studies also align compulsive buying disorder with other mental health conditions. Compulsive buying is comorbid with mood disorders, anxiety, eating disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and substance abuse issues, substantiating their similar neurological roots.
3. How to Diagnose Compulsive Buying Disorder
Though compulsive buying is not an officially recognized diagnosis under the DSM-5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition), its diagnosis involves a comprehensive evaluation by a mental health professional. The process includes a thorough assessment of the individual’s shopping behaviors, emotional state, and the impact of their shopping habits on their daily life and relationships. While there is no specific medical test to diagnose compulsive buying disorder, mental health professionals rely on standardized criteria and clinical interviews to diagnose accurately.
The first step involves a face-to-face interview with the individual seeking help. During this interview, the mental health professional will ask about the individual’s shopping behaviors, including the frequency of shopping sprees, the emotional state before, during, and after shopping, and the financial consequences of their shopping habits. They may also inquire about the individual’s social and occupational functioning to assess the overall impact of the disorder on their life. Questionnaires and other assessment tools may also be helpful.
Criteria for diagnosis typically include:
- Intrusive thoughts about shopping, excessive preoccupation with buying or shopping.
- Repetitive purchasing of items that are unnecessary or unaffordable.
- A feeling of loss of control during shopping episodes.
- Due to the shopping behavior, there is significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.
4. The Impact of Compulsive Buying Disorder
Compulsive buying disorder can have severe consequences for individuals and their families:
- Financial Distress: Compulsive shoppers often accumulate significant debt due to impulsive and excessive spending habits. The financial burden can lead to bankruptcy, loss of assets, and strained relationships.
- Emotional Impact: Individuals with the disorder may experience guilt, shame, and regret after shopping binges. These negative emotions can exacerbate the cycle of compulsive shopping.
- Relationship Strain: The financial and emotional toll of compulsive shopping can strain relationships with family members, friends, and romantic partners, leading to conflict and mistrust.
- Decluttering Issues: Compulsive shoppers often buy items they don’t need or use, resulting in cluttered living spaces, hoarding, unsanitary conditions, and difficulty organizing belongings.
5. Psychiatric Treatments
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) is a widely used and practical therapeutic approach for treating Compulsive buying disorder. It helps in the following ways:
- Identifying and Challenging Thoughts: CBT helps individuals identify negative thought patterns associated with shopping and challenge them. This process helps modify dysfunctional beliefs about shopping and the underlying emotions.
- Developing Coping Skills: CBT equips individuals with healthy coping mechanisms to deal with stress, anxiety, and other emotional triggers without compulsive shopping.
- Exposure and Response Prevention: Therapists may sometimes use exposure therapy to confront shopping-related situations while gradually avoiding compulsive behavior. This technique helps desensitize individuals to shopping triggers and reduces the impulse to shop excessively.
- Goal Setting and Behavioral Strategies: CBT helps individuals set realistic goals for managing their shopping habits and implement behavioral strategies to achieve them. These goals can include debt consolidation, financial planning, and credit counseling.
Integrative HealthCare Center Is Here to Help
If you struggle with depression, anxiety, negative thoughts, OCD, compulsive buying disorder, or any other mental health challenge, you don’t have to resign yourself to dreary thoughts. Integrative HealthCare Centers offers individualized therapy to help you overcome your troubles.
We offer top-of-the-line psychiatry, including cognitive behavioral therapy and medication management. Additionally, we provide innovative Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) treatment that helps mightily with various mental health disorders.